How an air-conditioning system works? Most of this heat is absorbed while it was changing state from liquid to a vapor. Centrifugal fan is commonly used in AHU as it can move a small or large quantity of air efficiently.
Usually the ductwork is hidden inside the suspended ceiling A diffuser is placed at the part where the air comes out. The air that has been distributed which contains heat and dirt will be returned, therefore some of the return air will be removed to the air while some other will be mixed with fresh air for distribution. The air then passes over the cooling coil then the blower blows this filtered and chilled air, which passes through the grilles of the supply air compartment Room air in.
Consideration for placement of the indoor unit a. At the location from where the air can be distributed evenly throughout the room.
The indoor unit should be accessible easily so that one can conveniently clean the filter every fortnight and the whole unit. If the indoor unit is installed above certain window, make sure that it is in symmetry with the window.
Considerations for placement of the outdoor unit a. Should be located in the open space preferably on the terrace so that air can flow freely over the compressor and the condenser.
Building Structures and Technology Lecture Notes
Can also be hung on the external wall or the upper floor slab supported by steel angles and rods. Considerations for placement of the outdoor unit c. The surface on which the outdoor unit is to be installed should be rigid enough to avoid its vibration.
There should not be any hindrances in front of the outdoor unit that would block the passage of hot air to the open space. Easily accessible for carrying out the maintenance works of the compressor, condenser, and other devices.
The installation and gas charging also should be convenient. Zoned control units c. Variable refrigerant volume VRV system. Fire triangle Types of fire detection Requirement of Fire Protection i. Fire can be easily extinguished by removing one of the factors inhibiting the chemical reaction of the combustion process. For example, we can remove heat by pouring water on the fire or removing the fuel or cutting off oxygen supply by using a fire blanket.
In combustion, oxidation takes place rapidly producing a mixture of gases and energy. Energy is released as heat and light, and some gases become visible as smoke. During this stage the fire temperature increases more slowly.
However if it goes to another new area spreadsthe cycle will begin again. But a sudden rush of oxygen like breaking a window can reignite the fire with explosive violence. Certain combustible materials release more heat than others when they burn therefore contribute more fire load. Effective passive fire precautions represent good planning, good design and sound construction which could complement other basic functions of the building.
It can smoke log escape routes and prevent means of escape. Radiation passes through normal glass windows easily, and buildings with many or large windows are more likely to spread fire to other buildings.In its simplest form, concrete is a mixture of paste and aggregates rocks.
The paste, composed essentially of portland cement and water, coats the surface of the fine small and coarse larger aggregates. Through a series of chemical reactions called hydration, the paste hardens and gains strength to form the rock-like mass known as concrete. Within this process lies the key to a remarkable trait of concrete: it's plastic and malleable when newly mixed, strong and durable when hardened.
These qualities explain why one material, concrete, can build skyscrapers, bridges, sidewalks and superhighways, houses and dams. Concrete is a composite with properties that change with time. During service, the quality of concrete provided by initial curing can be improved by subsequent wetting as in the cases of foundations or water retaining structures. However, concrete can also deteriorate with time due to physical and chemical attacks. Structures are often removed when they become unsafe or uneconomical.
Lack of durability has become a major concern in construction for the past 20 to 30 years. As a result, many government and private developers are looking into lifecycle costs rather than first cost of construction. Durability of concrete depends on many factors including its physical and chemical properties, the service environment and design life.
As such, durability is not a fundamental property. One concrete that performs satisfactory in a severe environment may deteriorate prematurely in another situation where it is consider as moderate. This is mainly due to the differences in the failure mechanism from various exposure conditions.
Physical properties of concrete are often discussed in term of permeation the movement of aggressive agents into and out of concrete. Chemical properties refer to the quantity and type of hydration products, mainly calcium silicate hydrate, calcium aluminate hydrate, and calcium hydroxide of the set cement.
Reactions of penetrating agents with these hydrates produce products that can be inert, highly soluble, or expansive. It is the nature of these reaction products that control the severity of chemical attack. Physical damage to concrete can occur due to expansion or contraction under loading. Concrete Technology. Concrete Placement Checklist The cement must be as per the approved mix design and fresh. The cement must be stored properly inside a closed container, room or must be stored on an elevated flat form and covered properly with tarpaulin.
Differences between Lab Concrete and Site Concrete The concrete that is prepared at the site for pouring is not exactly the same that is made in the laboratory with the same ratio, this difference is due to low quality control measures and insufficient monitoring system. Why to Study the Strength of Concrete Strength is the ability of a material to resist an induced amount of stress that would make it fail, generally expressed in pounds per square inch psi or megapascals MPa.
The most analyzed and in a sense the most important mechanical property of concrete is its compressive strength.
Problems and Defects in Hardened Concrete Defects in concrete can often be related to the lack of durability of the concrete, resulting from the composition of the concrete, poor placement practices, poor Quality Control or the aggressive environment in which it is placed.
Standard Test for Consistency of Cement Paste by Vicat Apparatus This test method is used to determine the amount of water required to prepare hydraulic cement pastes with normal consistency, as required for certain standard tests. The flow is the resulting increase in average diameter of the mortar mass, as determined with the calipers, measured on at least four diameters at approximately equi-spaced intervals, expressed as a percentage of the original.
Behavior of Fresh Concrete after Placing and Compacting From placing to final set, concrete is in a plastic, semi-fluid state. Methods for Measuring Workability of Concrete Concrete is placed in an upper. Dropped into a lower hopper to bring it to a standard state and then allowed to fall into a standard cylinder. The cylinder and concrete weighed partially compacted weight. The concrete is fully compacted, extra concrete added and then concrete and cylinder weighed again fully compacted weight.
Concrete TechnologyDefinitionPrestressing.Building Technology offers students the opportunity to explore critical topics for the future of the built environment and natural resources. Our program explores ways to use design and technology to create buildings that contribute to a more humane and environmentally responsible built world. Strategies employed toward these ends include integrated architectural design strategies, resource accounting through material flow analysis and life cycle assessment, building and urban energy modeling and simulation, human comfort analysis, control design and engineering, and other technologically-informed design methods.
Skip to main content. Urban Modeling Interface. Mapdwell Solar System. Makuleke Community Library. Sesen-Aten Temple. Guastavino Vault Replica. Building Technology. Deploying drones to prepare for climate change.
Christoph Reinhart: Applying physics to the design of energy-efficient buildings. Upcoming Lectures May 4, - pm. Overview Building Technology offers students the opportunity to explore critical topics for the future of the built environment and natural resources.A typical street in a hot and dry climate Corsica, France : Narrow for shading and cooling, high thermal mass to delay daytime heat penetration, exterior shadings and overhangs to minimize solar gains.
Photograph by Prof. Marilyne Andersen. Cite This Course. Don't show me this again. This is one of over 2, courses on OCW.
Find materials for this course in the pages linked along the left. No enrollment or registration. Freely browse and use OCW materials at your own pace. There's no signup, and no start or end dates. Knowledge is your reward. Use OCW to guide your own life-long learning, or to teach others. We don't offer credit or certification for using OCW.
Made for sharing. Download files for later. Send to friends and colleagues. Modify, remix, and reuse just remember to cite OCW as the source. The course aims at providing a fundamental understanding of the physics related to buildings and to propose an overview of the various issues that have to be adequately combined to offer the occupants a physical, functional and psychological well-being. Students will be guided through the different components, constraints and systems of a work of architecture.
Typical geometry of roofing shingles, showing "toplap" and exposure. Flashing at steep-sloped "valley. The most common roofing element for steep-slope roofing is the shingle which can be fabricated from many materials, as long as they shed water: wood, asphalt, fiberglass, clay, concrete, and metal are all used.
Subjects for Civil Engineering - CIVIL
The basic principle is a staggering of the horizontal "courses," and an overlapping of the shingles along the slope. As seen in the image below, the actual shingle length must be somewhat longer than twice the exposure in order to maintain the watershedding capability:. The slope is indicated by the ratio in inches of "rise" to "run;" i. Below about 4 : 12, the roof looses its ability to shed water reliably, and a more rigorous and water-tight underlayment system must be used. The roof pitchnot commonly used, is the ratio of "rise" to twice the "run," i.
A slope of is equivalent to a pitch of or The underlayment, or roofing felt, provides temporary waterproofing of the exposed substrate during construction as well as a second line of defense after completion.
Additionally, it can act as an air barrier, and as a cushion, especially when used with brittle shingles clay tile, concrete. Parts of a gutter from Architectural Graphic Standards. Ochshorn, and respectively. Metal drip edge at roof eave. Where two materials intersect, or where the roofing terminates, flashing is used as a transitional device to maintain the continuity of the water protection.
Two applications of flashing are: 2-piece counter flashing and base flashing where a roof surface whether low- or steep-sloped intersects a vertical wall. As shown in the image below leftthe standard dimension from the surface of the roof to the penetration of the flashing into the wall is 8 inches:.
Note that the base flashing, when used with shingles image at right, Ithaca housing, photo by J. Ochshornis typically sheet metal, and may be covered by the shingles and the wall siding; whereas it would be similar to the roofing material in a low-slope context. The cant strip is used typically with traditional low-slope roofs B. Its purpose is to ease the transition of the base flashing material from horizontal to vertical, so that it doesn't crack.
Flashing at clay or concrete tile roof edge. Various types of roofing materials can be used on steep-sloped roofs. Metal roofing Metal roofing is detailed so that it can readily adjust to thermal stresses that might otherwise cause separation at joints. Two types of seams are shown below: The metal roof shown above is from Indiana Steel Roofing.
Galvanic corrosion. When two dissimilar metals are brought into contact with an electrolyte, electric current flows.You also may like to try some of these bookshopswhich may or may not sell this item. Separate different tags with a comma. To include a comma in your tag, surround the tag with double quotes.
Please enable cookies in your browser to get the full Trove experience. Skip to content Skip to search. Home This editionEnglish, Book edition: Building technology 2 : construction. Lecture notes. Physical Description 1 v. Published Geelong, Vic. Language English. Check copyright status Cite this Title Building technology 2 : construction. Other Authors Deakin University. School of Architecture and Building Deakin University. Faculty of Science and Technology Edition Preliminary rough ed.
Series Building technology 2 Building structures 2 Subjects Structural design. Notes For tertiary students. View online Borrow Buy. None of your libraries hold this item.
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Login to add to list.Buckminster Fuller's Biosphere in Montreal, Quebec. Image courtesy of Nicolas Janberg of Structurae. Cite This Course. Don't show me this again. This is one of over 2, courses on OCW. Find materials for this course in the pages linked along the left. No enrollment or registration. Freely browse and use OCW materials at your own pace.Types of Bonds in Brick Masonry Wall Construction - Building Construction - Civil Engineering
There's no signup, and no start or end dates. Knowledge is your reward. Use OCW to guide your own life-long learning, or to teach others. We don't offer credit or certification for using OCW.
Made for sharing. Download files for later. Send to friends and colleagues. Modify, remix, and reuse just remember to cite OCW as the source. This course features a unique interactive learning tool that explains structures and structural forces. This course offers an introduction to the history, theory, and construction of basic structural systems as well as an introduction to energy issues in buildings.
It emphasizes basic systematic and elemental behavior, principles of structural behavior, and analysis of individual structural elements and strategies for load carrying.
Need help getting started? Don't show me this again Welcome! Course Description Course Features Selected lecture notes Course Highlights This course features a unique interactive learning tool that explains structures and structural forces. Course Description This course offers an introduction to the history, theory, and construction of basic structural systems as well as an introduction to energy issues in buildings.